Polymeric nanoparticles for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals: an overview

  • Shanmugarathinam Alagarsamy Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, UCE-BIT Campus, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli -620024, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Subhasini Kandasamy Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, UCE-BIT Campus, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli -620024, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Ruckmani Kandasamy Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, UCE-BIT Campus, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli -620024, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Nandhamurugan Ramachandran Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, UCE-BIT Campus, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli -620024, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Gopikrishnan Muthurasu Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, UCE-BIT Campus, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli -620024, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Mukesh Kumar Venkatesan Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, UCE-BIT Campus, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli -620024, Tamil Nadu, India


Biopharmaceuticals, cutting-edge medications sourced from living organisms, embody the zenith of therapeutic progress driven by biotechnological breakthroughs. While oral drug delivery is convenient, it proves challenging for biopharmaceuticals due to the complex barriers in the gastrointestinal tract. Their delicate structure and susceptibility to degradation in the gut pose formidable obstacles. This scientific conundrum necessitates innovative solutions to ensure their effectiveness. Pseudomonas aeruginosa's Exotoxin A demonstrates the difficulty in traversing the intestinal epithelium, necessitating innovative strategies. Researchers utilize mucoadhesive, biodegradable polymers like alginate and chitosan to create nanoparticles. These nanoparticles form a protective gel in the stomach's acidic environment, enhancing drug stability and absorption. Chitosan and alginate collaborate in nanoparticle formulations, improving mucosal adhesion and prolonging drug retention. Introducing non-toxic Exotoxin A enhances trans-epithelial transport, validated by in vitro studies on Caco-2 cell monolayers and accumulation in the rat small intestine's lamina propria. Utilizing green fluorescent protein as a model within alginate-chitosan nanoparticles showcases their potential for oral drug delivery. Bacterial toxins play a crucial role in enhancing trans-epithelial transport, endorsing these nanoparticles. This fusion of biotechnology and polymer science offers a promising solution for biopharmaceutical oral delivery challenges, highlighting alginate-chitosan nanoparticles as versatile carriers for transformative drug delivery advancements.

Keywords: Polymeric nanoparticle, Oral delivery, Biopharmaceutical, GI tract


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How to Cite
Alagarsamy, S., Kandasamy, S., Kandasamy, R., Ramachandran, N., Muthurasu, G., & Venkatesan, M. K. (2024). Polymeric nanoparticles for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals: an overview. Journal of Innovations in Applied Pharmaceutical Science (JIAPS), 9(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.37022/jiaps.v9i1.565
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