Biochemical study on the antioxidant effect of some natural plants on the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
Oxidative stress is a phenomenon associated with pathogenetic mechanisms of several diseases including diabetes mellitus. There are many medicinal herbs, which have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. Cinnamon aqueous extract has many pharmacological properties, such as antioxidants activity; also, Coffee is rich in phenolic compounds with a strong antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to deduce of better methods of herbal treatment comparison between treatments by cinnamon, green and black coffee alone or by mixing herbs together on the Streptozotocin induced diabetic Rats. Sixty four female albino rats were weighed and divided into eight equal groups; 6 groups were treated orally one time daily for 90 days. Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: diabetic control; Group 3: (0.6 ml black coffee extract /150g/day); Group 4: (0.6 ml green coffee extract /150g /day); Group 5: (0.6 ml cinnamon extract /150g /day); Group 6: (0.3ml of black coffee and 0.3 ml of cinnamon /150g/day); Group 7: (0.3 ml of green coffee and 0.3 ml of cinnamon/150g/day); Group 8: (0.3 ml of black coffee, 0.3 ml of green coffee and 0.3 ml of cinnamon/150g/day). The mean value level of nitric oxide and malonadialdehyde in the triple combination treated group was significantly decreased in compared with all treated groups while, the mean value level of serum reduced glutathione and paraoxinase in this group is significantly increased (p=0.001) compared with all treated groups. In conclusion: the triple combination treatment by cinnamon, green and black coffee is the best group that acts as antioxidant effect.
2. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. 2014: Diabetes Care.37.
3. Anderson R.A and Broadhurst C.L Isolation and characterization polyphenol type A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2004; 52:65-70.
4. Araki, E. and Nishikawa, T. Oxidative stress: A cause and therapeutic target of diabetic complication. J. Diabetes Invest. 2010: 1:90-96.
5. AzabKSh, Mostafa AH, Ali EM, Abdel-Aziz MA. Cinnamon extract ameliorates ionizing radiation-induced cellular injury in rats. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2011; 74:2324–2329.
6. Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly M.B. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med. 1963; 61:882-888.
7. Broadhurst C. L. Nutrition and non-insulin dependent diabetes from an anthropological perspective. Alt Med Rev. 1997; 2:378-399.
8. Das. A, Durrant. D, Koka. S, Salloum. F. N, XiL, and Kukreja R. C. Mammalian target of rapamycin[mTOR] inhibition with rapamycin improves cardiac function in type 2 diabetic mice: potential role of attenuated oxidative stress and altered contractile protein expression. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2014; 289(7):4145–4160.
9. Delgado-Andrade, C. and Morales F. J. Unraveling the contribution of melanoidins to the antioxidant activity of coffee brews. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005; 53(5):1403–1407.
10. ĎuračkovāZ. Some Current Insights into Oxidative Stress. Physiol. Res. 2010; 59:459-469.
11. Eidi A, Mortazavi P, Bazargan M, Zaringhalam J. Hepato protective activity of cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. EXCLI J 2012; 11:495–507.
12. Eleazu C.O., Iroaganachi M., Okafor P.N., Ijeh I.I. and Eleazu K.C. Ameliorative Potentials of Ginger [Z. officinale Roscoe] on Relative Organ Weights in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats. Int J Biomed Sci. 2013; 9(2):82-90.
13. Förstermann U. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in vascular disease. Pflugers Arch, 2010; 459(6):923-939.
14. Gaafar M. Ahmed and Heba E. El-Ghamery and Mahmuod F. Samy. Effect of Green and Degree of Roasted Arabic Coffee on Hyperlipidemia and Antioxidant Status in Diabetic Rats. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2013; 5(5):619-626.
15. Ghorbani A. Best herbs for managing diabetes: A review of clinical studies. Braz J Pharm Sci 2013; 49:413-422. 16. Gil, J., Moreno E., Gil A., Blanco J. Effects of coffee consumption for cardiovascular health, diabetes and cancer development. Pscicothema 2004; 16(4):531-547.
17. Gomes M.B and Negrato C.A. Alpha-lipoic acid as a pleiotropic compound with potential therapeutic use in diabetes and other chronic diseases. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2014; 6(1):80.
18. Govindarajan, R., D.P. Singh and A.S. Rawat. High performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of phenolics in performance liquid potent Ayurvedic drug. J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. Anal. 2007; 43:527-532.
19. Hala , El- Kewawy E.M, Farida, Al-Firdous A and Nagib RM. Beneficial Effects of some beverage consumption and Orlist drug on Diet Induced Obesity in Experimental Rate. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(2):667-675.
20. Hamed S, Bennett C. L, Demiot C, Ullmann Y, Teot L, Desmoulière A. Erythropoietin, a novel repurposed drug: an innovative treatment for wound healing in patients with diabetes mellitus. Wound Repair and Regeneration 2014; 22(1):23–33.
21. Hao J, li F, Liu W, Qingjuanliu, Shuxialiu, Hongboli, and Huijunduan. Phosphorylation of PRAS40-Thr246 involved in renal lipid accumulation of diabetes. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2014; 229(8):1069–1077.
22. Heim K.E., Tagliaferro A.R., BobilyaD.J. Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure–activity relationships. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2002; 10:572–584.
23. Higashino K, Takahashi Y, Yamamura Y. Release of phenyl acetate esterase from liver microsomes by carbon tetrachloride. ClinChim Acta. 1972; 41:313-320.
24. Kapogiannis D, Boxer A, Schwartz J.B, Abner E.L, Biragyn A, Masharani U, Frassetto L, Petersen R.C, Miller B.L and Goetz E.J. Dysfunctionallyphosphorylated type 1 insulin receptor substrate in neural derived blood exosomes of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. The FASEB Journal 2015; 29(2):589–596.
25. Kaynar H., Meral M., Turhan H., Keles M., Celik G. and AkcayF. Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, total glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of patients with small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Letters 2005; 227:133–139.
26. Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan M.M, Khattak K.N, Anderson R.A. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(12):3215-3218.
27. Konrad, R.J., Mikolaenko, I., Tolar, J.F., Liu, K. and Kudlow, L. E. The potential mechanism of the diabetogenic action of Streptozotocin : inhibition of pancreatic beta-cell O-GlcNAc-selective N-acetyle-beta-D-glucosaminidase. Biochem. J. 2001; 356:31-41.
28. Kousteni S. FoxO1, the transcriptional chief of staff of energy metabolism. Bone 2012; 50(2):437–443.
29. Kumar S, Rashmi N, Kumar D. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn in streptozotocin induced induced diabetic mice. Indian J Nat Prod Resour. 2010; 1:200-203.
30. Li, B.B., B. Smith and M. Hossain. Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels: I. Solvent extraction method. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2006; 48:182-188.
31. Lopez P, Sanchez C, Batlle R, Nerin C. Solid- and varpour- phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. J. Agric Food Chem 2005; 53:6939-6946.
32. Łuczaj W., Zapora E., Szczepański M., Wnuczko K., Skrzydlewska E. Polyphenols action against oxidative stress formation in endothelial cells. Acta Pol Pharm - Drug Research. 2009; 66(6):617-624.
33. Maiese K. Novel applications of trophic factors, Wnt and WISP for neuronal repair and regeneration in metabolic disease. Neural Regeneration Research 2015; 10(4):518–528.
34. Montgomery H.A.C, Dymock JF. The determination of nitrate in water. Analyst 1961; 86:414-416.
35. Moreira D.P; Monteiro M.C; Ribeiro-Alves M; Donangelo C.M; Trugo L.C. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005; 53:1399-1402.
36. Morgan A.M, El-Ballal S.S, El-Bialy B.E, EL-Borai N.B. Studies on the potential protective effect of cinnamon against bisphenol A- and octylphenol-
induced oxidative stress in male albino rats, Toxicology Reports 2014; (1):92–101.
37. Murcia M.A, Egea I, Romojaro F, Parras P, Jiménez A.M, Martínez-Tomé M. Antioxidant evaluation in dessert spices compared with common food additives. Influence of irradiation procedure, J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004; 52:1872–1881.
38. Osawa T. Novel natural antioxidants for utilization in food and biological systems, in Postharvest Biochemistry of Plant Food-Materials in the Tropics, I. Uritani, V. V. Garcia, and E. M. Mendoza, Eds., 1994; 241–251, Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, Japan.
39. Parliament and T.H. An Overview of Coffee Roasting. In: Parliament, T.H., C.T. Ho and P. Schieberle[Eds.], Caffeinated Beverages: Health Benefits, Physiological Effects and Chemistry. Proceeding of the ACS Symposium Series 754. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 2000; 188-201.
40. Reddy Thavanati PK, Kodanda Reddy Kanala K.R, de Dios A.E and Cantu Garza J.M. Age-related correlation between antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage with smoking and body mass index, J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2008; 63:360–364.
41. Rice-Evans C.A, Miller N.J, Paganga G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci. 1997; 2:152–159.
42. Ruiz-Larrea M.B, Leal A.M, Liza M, Lacort M, de Groot H. Antioxidant effects of estradiol and 2-hydroxyestradiol on iron-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Steroids 1994; 59:383-388.
43. Salem M, Kholoussi S, Kholoussi N, Fawzy R. Malondialdehyde and trace element levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch. Hell. Med. 2011; 28(1):83-88.
44. Shobana S, Naidu K. A. Antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices, Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 2000; 62:107–110.
45. Song F, Ja W, Yao Y, Hu Y, Le L, Lın J, Sun X, Lıu L. Oxidative stress, antioxidant status and DNA damage in patients with impaired glucose regulation and newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. Clin. Sci. 2007; 112:599–606.
46. Svilaas A, Sakhi A.K, Andersen L.F, Svilaas T, Stro¨m E.C, Jacobs D.R, Ose L, and Blomhoff R. Intakes of antioxidants in coffee, wine, and vegetables are correlated with plasma carotenoids in humans. J Nutr. 2004; 134:562–567.
47. Tsai PJ, McIntosh J, Pearce P, Camden B, Jordan BR. Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in Roselle [Hibiscus SabdariffaL.] extract. Food Res. Int. 2002; 35:351-356.
Uchiyama S and Yamaguchi M. Alteration in serum and bone component findings induced in streptozotocin-diabetic rats is restored by zinc acexamate. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2003; 12:949-954.
49. Velioglu Y.S, Mazza G., Gao L., Oomah. B.D. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products, J. Agric.Food Chem. 1998; 46(10):4113–4117.
50. Weiss and R. B. Streptozotocin : A review of its pharmacology, efficacy and toxicity. Cancer Treat. Rep. 1982; 66(3):427-438.
51. Whiting DR, Guariguata L, Weil C, Shaw J. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011; 94:311–321.
52. Wondrak, G.T., Villeneuve, N.F., Lamore, S.D., Bause, A.S., Jiang, T. and Zhang, D.D. The Cinnamon-Derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells. Molecules 2010; 15(5):3338–3355.
53. Yilmaz O, Ersan Y, DilekOzsahin A, Ozturk AI, Ozkan Y. Consequences of the combined α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and α-lipoic acid on the glutathione, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in muscle and liver of diabetic rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013; 16:165-172.
54. Zare K, FatemiTabatabaei SR, Shahriari A, Jafari RA. The effect of butter oil on avoidance memory in normal and diabetic rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2012; 15:983-989.
Copyright © Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.